Memorandum Student Proposal



Dr. Maher


Wenjia Sun


June 13, 2015


The Proposal for Instruction Kit



Effective communication during the process of giving instructions is a very important aspect of the whole exercise being described by the instructions. For the success of the exercise being taken the instructions must be detailed and comprehension. Also, ambiguity must be eliminated in the instruction so as to rule out difference in outcome of the process. Ineffective instructions are meant to give poor results out of the process. This paper aims at shading a light on an instruction kit that will be developed to enable the ABC Engineering Company comprehend the importance of effective communication use during instructions.

The kit

The materials needed for the activity include light emitting diodes, several pieces of copper wires, a switch, a battery, a rectangular piece of paper and a balloon. For the demonstration of best practice for effective set of instructions a presentation set will be used of give the instructions. Other models and pictorials will also be used to elaborate the best practices for giving instructions so that they could serve as an example to the audience.

In the first set of instructions brief details will be given about the creation of the simple street lights. This set will be considered ineffective but the audience will not be told until they note the problem. The instructions will be brief and will involve the following procedure. Tie the two legs of the light emitting diode using two different wires. The wires should be copper and insulated properly. The led should be red in color. The wire from the anode leg of the light emitting diode should be tied to the live ending of the simple switch. The other wire on the cathode of the light emitting diode should be connected to the negative side of the battery. From the positive side the battery a wire is elongated to the neutral side of the simple switch. Roll up a paper and pass the light emitting diode through it. Blow out a translucent balloon and tie it around the light emitting diode.

Another set of instructions will then be offered that will be brief but will be as follows. Tie the longer leg of the light emitting diode using one of the wires provided. Screw the tied wire on the part labelled + of the switch provided. Screw in another wire on the part labelled – of the switch and connect it to the part labelled + of the battery. Connect a wire between the parts labelled – of the battery to the shorter leg of the light emitting diode. Roll up a piece of rectangular paper into a small radius cylinder, pass the wire leading to the led through it and tie it at the led side using an inflated balloon to cover the led. Diagrams will also be appended to this set of instructions.

In the best practice for writing instruction, better use of instructions will then be demonstrated during the recommendation of the best practice in giving instructions. The audience will be taught on how to customer make the instruction to meet the needs of the user. A comprehensible simple language should be used in all instructions with an inclined need to serve the layman as well.


After demonstrating the best practice for giving instructions an interactive session will be held so that the audience to air their views about the two sets of instructions. To be sincere even those ones with a basis in electronic will say that they had a problem in following the ineffective instructions set above. First they will never even know what the paper will be rolled into a strip or a cylinder. Yet again they won’t know the point where the balloon comes in into the process. The ones with no basis in electronics will totally off the hook from the start. It will also be unnecessary to receive instructions about the led color and type of wire unless they were making them or having a choice from a variety. Can I get homework help from this site?

E-commerce project Homework


Question 1

According to a research done in January 2014, 87% of the American adult population use the internet. Most of these adults use mobile devices to access the internet. More men use the internet as compared to men. Statistically, 87% of men use the internet. On the other hand, 86% of women use the internet. Ethnically, whites are the ones who use the internet most. The Pew Research Centre indicated that 85% of white adults, 81% of African-American adults and 83% of Hispanic adults use the internet. The use of the internet significantly varies across various age groups. The most frequent internet users are aged between 18 and 29 years. This age group recorded a 97% internet usage. Adults aged between 30 and 49 years recorded a 93% internet usage. Adults aged between 50 and 64 and those aged above 65 years recorded 88% and 57% internet usage respectively (Pew Research Center, 2014).

The research shows that the frequency of internet usage increases with an increase in annual income. Households which earn $75,000+ recorded 99%, while those earning below $30,000 annually recorded a 77% internet usage. The type of community also has a substantial influence on the use of the internet. The urban, suburban and rural communities recorded internet usage by 88%, 87%, and 83% respectively. Clearly, the use of the internet is not only influenced by age, but also one’s income, education and type of community (Pew Research Center, 2014).

The results obtained in 2014 are very distinct from those collected in 2012. Generally, there has been a significant increase in internet use across all ages, sexes, education levels, income levels and communities. For instance, the 2012 research depicted that only 49% men and 51% women were using the internet. The trend across ages was different. Surprisingly, the adults aged between 18 and 24 years were the least users of the internet with a usage rate of 16%, while the eldest, age group of 55+ recorded a 26% rate which was the highest that year (Pew Research Center, 2014).

Question 2

There are various legal and social trends and issues in the e-commerce sector and internet use. For instance, the issue of digital signatures has been trending for a long time. E-commerce transactions are equated to contracts. Therefore, like any other contract, validity is a sensitive and crucial aspect. However, it gets a little complicated to validate contracts in the internet environment given that the transactions are paperless. To help solve such problems, digital signatures were introduced. These signatures have helped increase the growth of E-commerce since they ensure that the involved parties have agreed to enter to a contractual agreement. The digital signature technology creates the evidence imperative for the integrity and validity of the electronic contract. In addition, this technology is able to detect if any changes have been made to the contract since its signing (In Lee, 2014).

E-commerce has been subjected to various issues touching on taxation. For instance, in November 2014, Main Streets claimed that there was a loophole which gave an unfair upper hand to the online retailers over the Main Street competitors. They also claimed that the unfairness was costing the local communities tax revenues and jobs. In addition, it creates a substantial unfairness in the trading places for both the consumers and business alike. Firstly, the challenge was on taxing the e-commerce businesses. This challenge is currently going on in India, where they do not know how to tax the newly introduce Amazon Company (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2014).

There are also social issues in this sector. The use of social media has continually become a big success for E-commerce businesses. Currently, it is said that if your e-commerce business is not engaging in social media, you are missing a lot of opportunities. Many experts in this industry concur that social media goes beyond mere brand promotion. It gives the online business a platform to interact effectively with its target audience. The E-commerce businesses have turned to social marketing campaigns which focus on creating a buzz amongst the target audience. The use of social media has turned out to be one of the most recent trends in the industry (In Lee, 2014).

Question 3

Adoption of E-commerce strategies may have negative or positive implications on the business ventures. In America, the most successful online business is the Amazon Company. The company holds the highest sales volume among all web-based businesses. Clearly, the other E-commerce ventures can learn various things, from Amazon particularly regarding strategy adoption. The basic strategy implemented by Amazon is that of optimizing the business’ site to suit the product’s nature as well as the customers’ preferences. This ensures that the site’s content is perfectly customized. In addition, the business should adopt the most suitable software for its site operations. For instance, Amazon uses a pattern recognition software. This will enable the site to review a customer’s purchase history in order to make a recommendation list for the customer. Such features enable an E-commerce business to thrive amidst competition (Fox, 2009).

Communication is key in any E-commerce business. This enhances the customer relations as well as customer services offered. For instance, Amazon has adopted a highly integrated customer service system. The system supports communications through telephone, fax, and email. Communication between the customers and the business venture should be kept effective to allow the business to get feedback on its services and products. It also enhances the organizational responsiveness of the business. Such strategies will only have positive impacts on the current and future E-commerce ventures (Fox, 2009).

Dell has also significantly prospered in this industry. According to this company, it is imperative for E-commerce ventures to adopt customization and personalization tools. For smaller enterprises, they can integrate their websites with those of their trading partners to help ease their costs. In addition, the firms ought to place equal value on the product’s quality and content of their site. The firms should be concerned about the quality of customer service they offer for it is crucial in creating a broad base of customers. The adoption of such strategies has been proven to yield positive results (Fox, 2009).

Question 4

E-government adoption may be defined as the intention to have citizens engage in information exchange and request the government services. E-government is a complex multidimensional construct. For the e-government adoption to succeed, various things must be put into considerations. Firstly, the site should offer the citizens utmost satisfaction. Satisfaction may be defined as the fulfillment one derives from a service. Analytically, customer satisfaction is differentiated into two constituent parts: overall satisfaction and transactional satisfaction. Transactional satisfaction may be defined as satisfaction drawn from particular individual transactions. The quality of transactional satisfaction differs from one transaction to another. Overall satisfaction is obtained when numerous transactional specific satisfactions are recorded as positive. It is imperative that e-government adoption provides the citizens with the highest levels of satisfaction. Higher levels of citizen’s satisfaction will in turn increase the rate at which the adoption will occur (Sebina, Moahi, & Bwalya, 2014).

The quality of services offered impacts citizen satisfaction. For the government to succeed in this online business, it has to provide the best quality of services. The governments need to comprehend the needs of its citizens and also tailor services which will adequately cater for those needs. The government may adopt an e-strategy founded on a user-perspective approach. This approach will help determine how information may be effectively organized as well as how it is delivered to citizens. While planning, the needs of the citizens should be given a higher priority than those of the government. As a result, the services offered are founded on the needs of the users rather than departmental structures. The quality of the services offered may be measured based on empathy, tangibles, responsiveness, reliability and assurance. The government may further subdivide the services to cover citizens, and non-citizens. The web design is very imperative in the adoption process. Therefore, the e-government sites should be designed so as to serve the target market effectively and efficiently (Sebina, Moahi, & Bwalya, 2014).










Fox, S. C. (2009). E-riches 2.0: Next-generation marketing strategies for making millions online.   New York: American Management Association.

In Lee, I. (2014). Trends in e-business, e-services, and e-commerce: Impact of technology on         goods, services, and business transactions.

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2014, November 14). Collecting E-Commerce Taxes | E-Fairness Legislation. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center. (2012, November 7). A Comparison of Results from Surveys by the Pew Research Center and Google Consumer Surveys | Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center. (2014). Internet User Demographics | Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Sebina, P. M. I. I. M., Moahi, K. H., & Bwalya, K. J. (2014). Digital access and e-government:    Perspectives from developing and emerging countries.



1. Payroll accounting:
a. The entry to record Brookhaven’s February payroll:
Brookhaven Publishing
Journal Entry
For the month February
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
2/28 Salaries Expense Dr.Social Security Taxes Payable Cr.Medicare TaxesPayable Cr.Federal Income Taxes WithholdingsPayableCr.State Income Taxes PayableCr.Insurance Withholdings PayableCr.Salaries payable 50,000 2,0007507,5002,00050037,250

b. The journal entry to record Brookhaven’s payroll tax expense:
Brookhaven Publishing
Journal Entry
For the month February
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
2/28 Payroll Tax Expense Dr.Social Security Taxes Payable Cr.Medicare Taxes Payable Cr.State Unemployment Taxes Payable Cr.Federal Unemployment TaxesPayable Cr. 5,850 2,0007502,700400

Federal Unemployment Taxes= 50000* .8%=400
2. Current liabilities:
a. Journal entries to record the transactions:
Journal Entries
For the year20XX,December 31
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
12/1 Bank A/C Dr.Notes Payable- First City Bank Cr. 10,000 10,000
12/10 Warranty Expense Dr. Warranty Liability Cr. 810 810
12/22 Merchandise Inventory Dr.Accounts Payables- Oregon CompanyCr. 16,000 16,000
12/26 Bank A/C Dr.Notes Payable- First City Bank Cr. 5,000 5,000
12/31 Warranty Liability Dr.Cash Cr. 162 162
12/31 Salaries Expense Dr.Accrued Salaries Expense Cr. 1,400 1,400

b. Prepare adjusting entries on October 31 to record accrued interest:
Adjusting Entries
For the year 20XX, December 31
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
12/31 Interest Expense Dr. (125+62.5)Accrued Interest Expense Cr. 187.5 187.5

c. The Current Liability section of Red Bank’s balance sheet as of October 31:
Balance Sheet
As of December 31, 20XX
Current Liabilities Amounts ($) Amounts ($)
Accounts PayableAdd: NewNotes PayableAdd: NewAccrued Interest ExpenseWarranty LiabilityAccrued Salaries Expense 203,60016,00010,0005,000 219,60015,000187.56481,400
Total Current Liabilities 236835.5

3. Notes payable:
a. Journal entries to record the transactions:
Red Bank Enterprises
Journal Entries
For the year ending October 31
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
8/2 Bank A/C Dr.Notes Payable- Kingsville Cr. 55,000 55,000
8/20 Delivery Truck Dr. Notes Payables- Harris Motors Cr. 50,000 50,000
9/10 Merchandise Inventory Dr.Notes Payables- Pans Enterprises Cr. 15,000 15,000
9/11 Accounts Payables Dr.Notes Payables- Datatec Equipment Cr. 60,000 60,000
10/10 Notes Payables- Pans Enterprises Dr.Interest Expense Dr.Bank A/C Cr. 15,000150 15,150
10/11 Notes Payables- Datatec Equipment Dr.Interest Expense Dr.Bank A/C Cr. 60,000700 60700
10/30 Notes Payable- Kingsville Dr. Interest Expense Dr.Bank A/C Cr. 55,0001650 56650

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b. Prepare adjusting entries on December 31 to record accrued interest:
Red Bank Enterprises
Adjusting Entries
For the year ending December 31
Date Particulars Debit ($) Credit ($)
10/31 Interest Expense Dr. Accrued Interest Expense Cr. 2217 2217

2 august to 31st December= 133 days
c. The Current Liability section of Red Bank’s balance sheet as of December 31:
Red Bank Enterprises
Balance Sheet
As of December 31
Current Liabilities Amounts ($)
Accounts PayableNotes PayableAccrued Interest Expense 203,60050,0002217
Total Current Liabilities 255817

The Failure of the League of Nations

The Failure of the League of Nations

After the end of the Word War 1, it was evident that a failure in the international balance of power could have catastrophic consequences. As such, international leaders conceived and actualized the idea of a global body that would check the international balance with a view to preventing a repeat of another world war. The result of such cooperation was the League of Nations, a global body formed with the goal of maintaining peace and order in the world. However, the League of Nations, which comprised superpowers such as Britain, France, and Germany, failed to maintain world order and prevent another world war. Several factors deprived the capacity of the League to quell the impending Second World War. In this paper, I will argue that the League of Nations failed to prevent another war because the superpowers along with other member countries were focused on their national interest, yet ignored a collective global interest that has a benefit for all. This research established that the league was a victim of power politics, members were not loyal to the League, it lacked its own troops and an army to enforce its regulations, existence of bad blood among some European nations, and defiance of nations such as Germany, Italy, and Japan. Failure of the US to join the league was also a major setback.

In light of the realities that emerged following the First World War regarding the serious consequences of disrupting the global power system, the nations of the world came up with the idea of collective security. Collective security can be described as a concept that would be used to act jointly, with a view to countering or preventing an attack aimed at disrupting the existing international peace and order (Ebegbulem 2011, 23). As such, the collective security envisioned the development and application of collective measure that would be used to deal with threats to global peace. The collective security relied heavily on the commitment of the nations of the world. During the period following the end of the First World War, the League of Nations was the body, which was tasked with the role of implementing collective security concept, by uniting nations to implement it. Under the League of Nations, the concept failed terribly. In addition, some nations feared that the collective strength of the League would possibly work against their national interests.

Failure of the United States to join the League dealt a big blow to the League of Nations. Although Woodrow Wilson advocated the push for its formation, he did not receive support from the US congress and the senate(U.S. Department of of State, 2010). First, the Monroe Doctrine barred the US from involvement in the affairs of Europe (Jefferson, 1999). By the terms of the treaty of Versailles that ratified the formation of the League, any emergency of war in European nations would compel the US to send its troupes through the League of Nations. Such a move would draw the US into international conflicts and contravene its foreign policy (U.S. Department of of State, 2010). The US Republican Party was also promoting isolation of the US from international engagements and advocated for national sovereignty. Wilson, a democrat failed to win the support of republicans and this greatly derailed the operations of League of Nations. The US being the world’s most powerful nation, its decline denied the League a political and economic might that would have been instrumental in the enforcement of the League’s decisions.

Britain and France had severely suffered during the First World War and could not provide financial and military support to the League. At the time of the ratification of the Versailles treaty, the advocates were optimistic that the US, Britain and France would be the key players in its operations (Trueman, 2013). Decline of the US to join the League left Britain and France as the leading members, yet they had been weakened during the First World War and were keen on restructuring their internal economies and military units. Though actively involved in the First World War, Germany and Russia were also initially locked out of the League’s membership. This was a blow to its operations. The League’s warnings to aggressors were widely ignored since it was considered powerless. It lacked military might to enforce its decisions.
What is more, Germany, Italy and Japan contributed to the League’s failure to develop and enforce the collective security (Oppenheim 18). The three nations dishonored the League’s established rules regarding maintenance of world peace. As already mentioned, the success of the collective security, for which the League of National was the enforcement instrument, dependent on the collective efforts of the world nations. “The League of Nations failed because…France, Britain, and the United States – were not able to set aside their national interest for the good of a collective global interest” (Baylis et. al., 2012, 34). Open defiance and lack of commitment of powerful nations such as the US had a negative impact on the League efficiency. It was as if the League was now powerless. When aggressions increased, the organization could not act effectively, since there was not commitment from the nations, which were busy concentrating on advancing their national interests, while neglecting the global issues of peace and order.

The League of Nations had started with very unrealistic goals. For example, the League’s disarmament goals were too much to negotiate if it is observed today (Henig 2010). For effective disarmament and evasion of future war, it would have been appropriate for the nations to set aside their national interest. With the disarmament interest as a priority, the nations would have crafted an unbiased agreement to end the armament problem. The League also did not have their own troops and ability to secure their aims. Member countries did not provide military support to help the League to fight against an aggressor of the alliance (Henig 2010). It could be observed that the lack of cooperation and agreement in the League makes them weak and not effective. The League required more cooperation between its members; they were focused on their national interest.

The idea of realism played a key role in the failure of the League of Nations to prevent another world war. Realism suggests that each nation has a role to guard its interest in a world where the power system is so delicate. According to Baylis and Smith, each state actor in the global system “is responsible for ensuring their own well-being and survival,” (2014. 162). This implies that each nation has a role to work towards advancing its national interests, even if that means foregoing its efforts in the global peace realm. In light of the realist theory, nations of the world should work within their powers to ensure their own domestic security and socio-economic development. Realists argue that it is imprudent for a nation to place their survival and security on another global actor (such as another country), or an international body such as the League of Nations or the United Nations (Philpott 2000, 213). Morgenthau notes that “the main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power” (2006, 3). It is worth noting that in light of the power differentials of nations, entrusting the safety of a nation on another entity entails a wide range of uncertainties. A nation’s actions should be guided by its interests, with the major goals of increasing, or at least maintaining its powers in a world characterized by differentially powerful nation-states. Quoting Thomas Hobbes, McPherson writes that “…the right of nature is defined as the ‘the liberty each man hath, to use his own power . As he will himself, for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of His own life; and consequently of doing any thing which in his own judgment and reason he shall conceive to be the aptest means thereunto” (1986, 41).

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In light of the foregoing, it is almost certain that power politics played a key role in the failure of the League Nations to stop the Second World War. As already mentioned, the League was the main instrument that would be used to develop and enforce the collective security to ensure international peace and order, in which no singular nation-state or alliance dominated the rest. Accordingly, the unity of all nations was necessary. It is not surprising that the failure of all the partners to cooperate and work collectively made it hard for the League to be effective. In many ways, realist ideas contributed to the scenario. For example, the US declined to join the League, although it was highly expected to be part of the global body, considering that the country was a key player in the global power system. The main reason for America’s refusal to be part of the League of Nations can be said to be realism (Baylis and Smith, 2012, 163 -164). For one, the US did not want to involve herself in European matters and conflicts. Instead, the country was keen on its domestic and global interests. In view of the concept of realism, the US wanted to forge her own way by ensuring safety and survival. Clearly, joining the League did not seem to the US that it would do anything to increase her chances of survival and security. As a result, America chose to keep off the global peace and development body, a move which had a far reaching negative impact on the League, which badly needed the US support.

Similarly, the open defiance by Germany, Italy and Japan was majorly motivated by the respective nation’s desire to pursue their national interests, which they believed would increase their domestic security and safety, as well as their chances of survival in the international realm (Oppenheim 2008, 27). As a result, Japan’s persistent aggression and defiance culminated in her eventual dismemberment from the League, after which she went ahead to attack China. Aside from weakening the League, Japan’s exit encouraged other Europeans tyrants to experiment the same tactics in Europe and Africa. Japan would later launch a full attack on China in 1937. In view of the realist ideas, Japan’s aggression was informed by her desire to extend her territories and establish herself as a political power in the international stage, with the ultimate goals of ensuring her security and survival (Baylis and Smith 2014, 162). Similarly, Italy under Benito Mussolini defied the League’s warning and economic sanctions to go ahead and invade Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), which was then a member nation to the global peace body. Even after the invasion, the League’s further economic sanctions did nothing to stop Italy’s aggression. Italy’s 1935 invasion of the Abyssinian capital further weakened the League as it was apparent that the organization was powerless and could do nothing to keep world peace and order, except engage in empty rhetoric (Ebegbulem 2011, 23-26).

Moreover, Germany had always wanted to reclaim Rhineland as part of her territory. The country defied the peacekeeping body’s warning and sanctions to invade the land. Although Germany feared that France would stop her from reclaiming Rhineland, neither the French nor the British did anything to stop Hitler’s troops. This was so partly because at that time, France lacked a strong leader. To stop Hitler’s aggression in Rhineland, France needed British support, but the latter was not willing to stop Germany’s attacks.

Realists argue that the failure of the League to stop another war was contributed by the fact that Great Britain, a key power in the organization, was busy taking care of her interest in their own Empire, while putting minimal efforts in the Leagues operations and efforts towards collective security (Morgenthau 2006, 2-3). Besides, France always wanted to punish Germany for the latter’s actions during the just ended World War 1. This means that the two countries could not cooperate in the interest of the global peace and order, which the League of Nations was working towards. It is worth noting that the French’s desire to punish the Germans, and the Great Britain’s focus on building and strengthening their own British Empire were in line with realist ideas that each nation of the world tends to prioritize their national interests at the expense of the global, collective interest. The individual actions of the nations that should have united in the interest of collective security dealt serious blows to the League of Nations (Beck 1995). Aggressions from different, often defiant nations such as Japan, Germany and Italy not only left the League of Nations weak and unable to stop another war, but also actually resulted in the highly devastating Second Word War.

In conclusion, the League of Nations, which was formed to keep global peace, failed to stop another world war. Nations, which should have cooperated in enforcing the collective security machinery, were busy pursuing their respective national interests, at the expense of global peace. Refusal of the US to join the League, the open defiance of Germany, Italy and Japan, the bad blood between some European nations and the pursuit of domestic interests weakened the League’s capacity to stop another war. The issues discussed in this paper support my argument that the League of Nations failed to prevent another war because the superpowers in the organization were overly focused on their national interest yet ignore a collective global interest.